Days 60 and 90 were from two independent experiments (n=8). decreasing bacterial burden in both the CGK 733 upper and lower airways, and by generation of pertussis specific antibody responses in mice. Responses to wP vaccination were characterized by a significant increase in T follicular CGK 733 helper cells in the draining CGK 733 lymph nodes and CXCL13 levels in sera compared to aP mice. In addition, a population of and anti-pertussis toxoid antibody secreting cells increased one day after boost and remained high at day 532. The data suggest that follicular responses, and in particular CXCL13 levels in sera, could be monitored in pre-clinical and clinical studies for the development of the next-generation pertussis vaccines. (1). Whole cell pertussis vaccines (DTP/wP) were first developed and implemented in 1914, but did not become widely available for distribution until the 1940s (1, 2). After their implementation in the United States, DTP vaccines dramatically reduced pertussis disease from ~200, 000 cases a year in the 1930s to ~2,000 in the 1970s (1). However, safety concerns arose that led to the development of acellular pertussis vaccines (aP) in the United States and Europe in the late 1990s (3, 4). Unlike wPs, which are composed of inactivated and pertussis vaccines can induce memory B and T cells that result from germinal center reactions (44C46). In vaccinated individuals, specific memory B cells expand following antigen exposure, decay rapidly, but can be detected years post-immunization (44). Furthermore, it has been suggested in mice that specific memory B cells have protective roles even in the absence of circulating antibodies at the time of challenge (44, 47). CGK 733 Overall, the relevance of germinal center CD4+ TFH cells and memory B cells in pertussis immunity remains unclear. Therefore, the objective of this study was to examine the follicular responses induced by vaccination against pertussis in mice to gain insights into Rabbit polyclonal to NPSR1 the duration of vaccine-induced memory. To do so, we developed a long-term murine model of pertussis vaccine prime, boost, and intranasal challenge. We used this model to compare aP and wP protection and follicular responses beginning at day 20 and concluding at day 532 post-prime. Given that administration of wP leads to longer-lasting protection than aP in humans, we hypothesized that wP would induce CGK 733 more robust follicular responses than aP immunization in mice (48). Responses to vaccination were measured by quantification of pertussis-specific antibody titers, antibody secreting cells, and follicular responses. Protection provided by vaccination was measured by quantifying bacterial burden in the lungs, trachea, and nasal wash 3 days post-challenge. In this work, we describe immunological memory markers that are significantly increased in wP and not aP immunization, such as CXCL13 and antigen-specific memory B cell production. Our data identify that B memory responses are an underappreciated aspect of pertussis immunity that could guide future pertussis vaccine development. Materials and Methods Strains and Growth Conditions strain UT25Sm1 was kindly provided by Dr. Sandra Armstrong (University of Minnesota) (49, 50). UT25Sm1 strain has been fully genome sequenced (NCBI Reference Sequence: “type”:”entrez-nucleotide”,”attrs”:”text”:”NZ_CP015771.1″,”term_id”:”1045414822″,”term_text”:”NZ_CP015771.1″NZ_CP015771.1). UT25 was originally isolated in 1977 from a child diagnosed with pertussis. UT25Sm1 was grown on Remel Bordet Gengou (BG) agar (Thermo Scientific, Cat. #R452432) supplemented with 15% defibrillated sheep blood (Hemostat Laboratories, Cat. #DSB500) and streptomycin 100 g/mL (Gibco?, Cat. #11860038) at 36C for 48 hours. For each infection point, the number of viable bacteria and the Bvg+ (hemolytic and characteristic colony morphology) phenotype were confirmed to ensure consistency between each challenge. Bacteria were then collected using polyester swabs and resuspended in Stainer Scholte media (51) (SSM) supplemented with L-proline and SSM supplement. SSM liquid culture was incubated for 24 hours at 36C with constant shaking at 180 rpm until reaching mid-log phase OD600nm 0.5 with 1 cm path width (Beckman Coulter? DU 530 UV Vis spectrophotometer). The UT25Sm1 culture was diluted in supplemented SSM to OD600nm = 0.24 – 0.245 (equivalent to 109 CFU/mL) to be used for challenge or serological analysis by ELISA. Vaccine Preparation and Immunization, Bacterial Challenge, and Euthanasia The World Health Organization (WHO) standard whole cell vaccine (wP) was obtained.