1). diagnosed during T1R (p 0.05). Anti-LID-1 levels waned in MB with T2R at diagnosis and nonreactional MB patients (p 0.05). Higher anti-LID-1 levels were seen in patients with T2R at diagnosis (vs. patients with T1R at diagnosis, p = 0.008; MRS 1754 vs. nonreactional patients, p = 0.020) and in patients with T2R during MDT (vs. nonreactional MB, p = 0.020). In MB patients, high and prolonged anti-LID-1 antibody levels might be a useful tool for clinicians to predict which patients are more susceptible to develop leprosy T2R. characterised by a T-helper (Th)1 type response with interferon-gamma secretion that results in low bacillary weight, few skin lesions and low or absent antibody production. The lepromatous (LL) pole is usually characterised by low or absent genome more than a decade ago, more than 200 protein antigens have been evaluated in immunological assays (Cole et al. 2001, Spencer et al. 2005, Aroz et al. 2006, Stefani 2008, Geluk et al. 2009, 2010). The leprosy Infectious Disease Research Institute diagnostic-1 (LID-1) fusion protein, which combines the ML0405 and ML2331 gene products into a single molecule, is well recognised by IgG antibodies in the serum of MB patients from numerous leprosy-endemic regions (Reece et al. 2006, Duthie et al. 2007, 2010,Sampaio et al. 2011, Hungria et al. 2012). We therefore evaluated the potential of using serum antibody responses against new protein antigens of – This study was approved by the Research Ethical Committee of the Clinics Hospital, Federal University or college of Gois (UFG), Goiania, state of Gois, and by the Brazilian Research Ethics Commission rate, with all participants signing an informed consent before enrolment. A retrospective analytical study was conducted with 50 patients that were recruited at the time of leprosy diagnosis and monitored during MDT for the development MRS 1754 of leprosy reactions at the main regional outpatient medical center (Reference Center for Diagnosis and Treatment, Goiania). Newly diagnosed, untreated MB leprosy patients (determined by WHO operational criteria; both genders, no age restrictions) were recruited as presenting with or without reaction, then fully characterised Mouse monoclonal to SNAI2 according to Ridley and Jopling criteria considering clinical, bacilloscopic and histopathology analyses (Table). Patients were then provided standard WHO-MDT and monitored for the development of reactions. For reaction-free patients, blood was collected at the time of initial diagnosis and at the end of MDT. For patients that offered reactional episode at diagnosis, blood was collected at diagnosis and at the end of reactional episode; for reactional patients that were reaction-free at diagnosis, blood sample was collected during the occurrence of reactional episode on follow up. Therefore, 100 serum samples were prepared and stored at -20oC until analyses. TABLE Characteristics of the study participants – Serum IgM antibodies to- GraphPad Prism v.5 was utilized for the calculation of the median and mean values of OD and for graphics. Statistical significance was assessed by Kruskal-Wallis one of the ways analysis of variance for comparison of multiple groups and Mann-Whitney for comparison between two groups. Results were considered MRS 1754 statistically significant when p values 0.05 were obtained. – This study was approved by the Ethical Committee of the Clinics Hospital/UFG (protocol 456.226). All participants were informed about the study aims and the procedures involved, then included only after signing the Informed Consent Form in accordance with Resolution 196/1996 of the National Health Council. RESULTS – The study group was composed by 50 MB patients with ages ranging from 17-79 years (median = 47 years) of whom the majority was male (Table). Stratification was then conducted based on the type of reactional episode at the time of initial diagnosis (none, T1R or T2R) (Fig. 1). Within this study group a half of MB patients either presented with T1R or T2R at the time of initial diagnosis (25 of 50) (Fig. 1). The only demographic difference in subgroups at the time of presentation was that patients who presented with T2R were significantly younger than the nonreactional MB patients (p = 0.026)In this study group, MB patients who presented with T2R had a median BI of 3+, while MB patients with T1R and nonreactional patients had median BI of 2.5+ (p 0.05). Even though patients presenting with T2R were predominantly LL, the BIs of MB reactional patients and reaction-free MB patients were comparable (p 0.05). Open in a separate windows Fig. 1: recruitment and stratified groups based on presentation and development of disease. MDT: multidrug therapy; T1R: type 1 reaction; T2R: type 2 reaction. – As expected, at the time of diagnosis, the vast majority of MB patients presented with positive anti-LID-1 and anti-PGL-I responses (81% and 54 %, respectively). The rate of seropositivity among nonreactional MB.