2 c), which showed a set of SERS bands

2 c), which showed a set of SERS bands. were recognized, including SARS-CoV, HCoV-229E, HCoV-OC43, HCoVHKU1, and MERS-CoV [1]. In addition, a new coronavirus (COVID-19) offers reported at the end of 2019 [2], [3], [4], [5], [6]. The COVID-19 offers fast spread worldwide in a short time compared with additional coronaviruses [5], [6]. However, the early diagnosis is hard because there are no initial characteristic symptoms of COVID-19 in the early stage of illness; besides, Rabbit Polyclonal to Gab2 (phospho-Tyr452) many instances did not display the common indicators [7]. Therefore, there is an urgent need to find antiviral medicines besides developing an accurate, simple, and sensitive sensing method. The real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) is the golden technique for detecting COVID-19. However, its costly, needs specialist laboratories, experienced individuals, and consumed a long time, which has limited their use [8], [9]. Therefore, it is of great urgency to develop quick, reproducible, cost-effective, easy-to-use, accurate, sensitive, and selective assays for the early analysis of COVID-19 in different specimens. Therefore, it is urgently needed to develop cost-effective, easy-to-use, fast, accurate, sensitive, selective, and real-time detection assays for the early analysis of COVID-19 illness. Biosensors?have several?advantages, such as the quick response and the large level of sensitivity and selectivity towards?many?biological species. Raman spectroscopy is one of the promising labelless, specific, accurate, sensitive, and nondestructive assays. Raman’s specificity is related to the fact that Raman showed fingerprints biochemical composition of the analyzed samples. Therefore, Raman spectroscopy is VCP-Eribulin one of the most promising techniques for real-time detection of different biological samples without sample preparation. However, the poor Raman signals are the main disadvantaged of Raman spectroscopy as a comprehensive analytical technique. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) is one of the widely used methods to conquer this inherent limitation and enhance the signals’ strength based on the uses of nanostructured metallic surfaces (gold and silver) [10], [11]. Hence, SERS has widely used for biosensing applications [12], [13], [14], [15], [16], [17], [18], [19]. Furthermore, electrochemical biosensors?detect the most easy-to-use, accurate,?quick,?and sensitive?biomarkers? [14], [20], [21].?Several nanostructures?modified electrodes have been reported to enhance the sensitivity and selectivity of the electrochemical biosensors? [22], [23], [24], [25], [26], [27], [28]. MWCNTs modified electrode was also VCP-Eribulin used as an electrochemical sensor for detecting the ROS/H2O2 in the COVID-19 samples. Hence, it could use for the early-stage screening, which showed a good agreement between the electrochemical results and the clinical diagnostics [29]. Besides the exclusive properties of the graphene-based materials [30], [31], [32]. Graphene is an extraordinary 2D material that can enhance the electrochemical conductivity of the traditional electrodes and enhance the Raman effect based on graphene-enhanced Raman scattering (GERS) [30], [31]. Moreover, metals nanostructures have wildly reported for improving the electrochemical conductivity and the Raman scattering. Thus, the graphene/metal NPs hybrids could improve the graphene/metal nanocomposites’ electrical conductivity compared with the pure graphene or metal NPs [32], [33]. Thus, these nanocomposites have shown promising applications in several fields, including catalysis, energy conversion, and chemo/biosensors [32], [33]. Here, we VCP-Eribulin have reported around the uses of the Au NPs@reduced porous graphene oxide (rPGO) modified ITO substrate as a VCP-Eribulin SERS-active surface and act as a scaffold for immobilization of the anti-COVID-19 antibodies. Besides, we have used these Au NPs decorated rPGO to improve the Raman signals and the electrochemical conductivity. The anti-COVID-19 antibodies were used as probes for monitoring the COVID-19 VCP-Eribulin based on Raman spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry (CV), and square wave voltammetry (SWV) techniques. This spectroelectrochemical biosensor showed a capability to detect the COVID-19 protein within a concentration range from 100?nmol/L to 500 fmol/L with a limit of.